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The genocide myth and Poland’s victimisation complex

One of the best examples of fake news in the post-communist world is the finger pointing by Russia and Poland towards Ukraine. Instead of looking in the mirror at the mainstreaming of nationalist discourse both countries point to “nationalists” in Ukraine. Yet, populists with nationalistic tendencies receive between 40 and 70 per cent support in Polish or Russian elections respectively, while in Ukraine they are unable to cross the four per cent threshold to enter parliament. Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko’s Solidarity party has never given its support to rallies of nationalists.

December 1, 2017 - Taras Kuzio - Articles and Commentary

This text is a part of a two-voice series: “Poland and Ukraine – Two voices”. Read the other voice here.

While Polish President Andrzej Duda condemned the hateful messages seen during the November 11th march in Warsaw, Interior Minister Mariusz Blaszczak described it “a beautiful sight” and said “We are proud that so many Poles have decided to take part in a celebration connected to the Independence Day holiday”. The Polish National Foundation, a body with strong ties to Poland’s ruling Law and Justice party, defended the events that took place on Poland’s Independence Day on November 11th. Nationalism in Russia and Poland is a growing part of the mainstream as seen in the unanimous vote by the Polish parliament to declare the 1943 killings of Polish civilians as “genocide”. This was evident during a recent Vilnius conference when two scholars from the excellent Center for Eastern Studies (OSW) harangued me about Volhynia in 1943 and voicing their support for the genocide myth.

The root cause of Russia’s and Poland’s finger pointing is a disrespect for Ukraine and Ukrainians who have never been seen by Russian and Polish nationalists as a real nation. In August 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev sent an open letter to his Ukrainian counterpart, President Viktor Yushchenko, outlining a host of demands to change Ukrainian domestic and foreign policies. One can now hear similar demands coming from officials in Poland. Such a situation forces a question: How would the ruling Law and Justice party react if Poroshenko demanded that Poland be excluded from the EU because its membership is incompatible with honouring Roman Dmowski, the pre-war antisemitic and fascist ideologue of the National Democrats (Endecja) who is honoured by a monument in Warsaw’s Na Rozdrożu Square. Polish President Andrzej Duda has said that Ukraine’s membership of the EU is incompatible with Stepan Bandera. And yet, Bandera never denied the existence of Poles, while Dmowski denied Ukrainians as a nation. Bandera remains buried in Munich where he was assassinated by a KGB agent in 1959.

What would be the reaction in Warsaw if Poroshenko demanded the replacement of the “anti-Ukrainian” director of the Polish Institute of National Remembrance, as has Duda of the “anti-Polish” director of Ukrainian Institute of National Memory, Volodymyr Viatrovych who is now banned from travelling to Poland? One also would wonder what the reaction would be in Warsaw if the Ukrainian parliament voted to declare the killings of Ukrainian civilians from 1938-1947 and the ethnic cleansing of Ukrainians in 1947 (the Vistula Action or Akcja Wisla) as “genocide”?

It cannot be denied that the seeds of the bitter Polish-Ukrainian antagonism that exploded into mutual killings in the 1940s were laid in part by the Polish nationalist policies in inter-war Poland. Polish nationalistic policies transformed Volhynia from a hotbed of Ukrainian national communism to Ukrainian nationalism – as exemplified by Danylo Shumuk who moved from the KPZU (Communist Party of Western Ukraine) to UPA (Ukrainian Insurgent Army) and later became a dissident and political prisoner in Soviet Ukraine.

Poland’s genocide myth

There are three conundrum’s facing supporters of the genocide myth. First, Raphael Lemkin’s definition of genocide is more applicable to the murder of Poland’s military elite in the Katyń Forest in 1940 and the ethnic cleansing of Poles from Galicia and Volhynia by Soviet forces in 1944-1946. Lemkin supported the use of the term genocide to describe Joseph Stalin’s Holodomor (forced famine) in Soviet Ukraine in 1943 which led to the deaths of 4-4.5 million Ukrainians.

Second, Polish historians have sought to find Ukrainian nationalist documents planning or calling for genocide against Poles in Volhynia, but they have failed. Indeed, there is no Polish equivalent of the two-volume, 1,400-page collection of 478 documents on Ukrainian-Polish relations edited by Viatrovych (volume 1 here; volume 2 here). Ukrainian historians believe the reason is because documents and archives would undercut Poland’s genocide myth. In other words, no known OUN (Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists) instructions exist that ordered UPA units to kill Poles in Volhynia.

Lemkin wrote that genocide requires a prior ideological propaganda campaign to mobilise people to commit the crime, as seen in Nazi Germany and Rwanda. In 1942-1943 there was no propaganda campaign by the OUN against the Polish population. Indeed, the opposite existed with OUN repeatedly seeking to negotiate alliances with the AK (Polish Home Army) but these efforts were being thwarted by the London-based Polish Government-in-Exile. Both Polish and Ukrainian partisan groups discussed the deportation of Ukrainian and Polish populations and those politically loyal and partisan groups affiliated to the pre-war National Democrats (Endecja) even laid out plans for deportations of Jews in the late 1930s and Ukrainians after World War II ended. The genocide myth is based on the exaggerated claim of a mass attack by UPA on July 11th and 12th, 1943 against 146 Polish settlements. Such a massive operation was impossible to undertake for the UPA units that existed at that time who did not yet dominate Volhynia because of a conflict with competing Taras Bulba-Borovets Ukrainian partisan units. Ukrainian historians do not deny that attacks and killings took place but limit these to an absolute maximum of 20-25 settlements.

Polish settlements were not defenceless, as the genocide myth claims. Polish settlements had self-defence units who had been given weapons by the Nazi’s and the AK and they were often bases for the AK and Soviet partisans. Historian Timothy Snyder has written that the majority of Soviet partisans in Volhynia were Poles (numbering between 5,000 and 7,000) and Jews (numbering between 1,000 and 1,500). Poles in Volhynia viewed the Soviets as potential allies against the Ukrainians and Polish self-defence units co-operated with Soviet partisans and the Nazis in attacks against the UPA. In Volhynia and Polissya there were 100 Polish self-defence bases.

A partisan in this conflict – similar to partisans and guerrillas in other wars – is a peasant who carries a weapon and the killing of a partisan could also therefore be described as that of a civilian (Polish Communists reported killing many more “UPA partisans” than existed in Zakerzone because they included murdered civilians). Indeed, Polish and Ukrainian civilians would often join partisan and Nazi (Ukrainian and Polish) police attacks on Ukrainian and Polish villages holding pitchforks and other agricultural implements with the hope of stealing goods from the civilians who had been killed.

Third, how many civilians need to die before a crime is classified as a “genocide”? The genocide claim is discredited by only applying it to killings of Poles and by manipulating dates to begin the Polish-Ukrainian war in 1943.  Historians in Ukraine and the West (including Viatrovych who has become a bogeyman to Polish nationalists and yet whom few have read in Poland) do not deny that Ukrainian nationalists and communists killed Poles or even that more Poles died than Ukrainians. What they do dispute though, is the inflated numbers of Polish victims which through the tabloidisation of history now reaches into the hundreds of thousands. Ukrainian historians cite the Polish Institute of National Remembrance as having collected the names of 23,000-31,000 Polish casualties in Volhynia and Galicia.

Grzegorz Motyka (Od Rzezi Wołyńskiej do Akcji Wisła), one of Poland’s most well-known historians on the 1940s cites Władysław and Ewa Siemaszko estimate of 33,000 Polish deaths in Volhynia. Of these, 19, 000 names have been collected.  Motyka expanded their estimate of 33,000 (without explaining how) to between 40,000-60,000 and reduced his earlier estimate of Ukrainian casualties to 1,000-2,000.  Motyka’s estimates of Polish casualties in Volhynia are similar to those of Snyder (50, 000). Nevertheless, Motyka’s estimate of Ukrainian casualties in Volhynia is far lower than those estimated by Snyder (10,000-20,000) or other historians of Ukraine, such as Paul R. Magocsi (20,000), Myroslaw Shkandrij (15,000-20,000) and Serhii Plokhy (15,000-30,000). Widely different estimates of civilian casualties in the Polish-Ukrainian war in the 1940s can be found within Poland, between Polish and Western historians and especially between historians in Ukraine and Poland. 

Historians of Ukraine and objective historians of Poland, such as Timothy Snyder, place the 1943 killings in Volhynia in historical context that began in 1938-1942 and ended in 1947. The number of victims was dependent upon whether Poles or Ukrainians dominated a region. Poles were in a minority in Volhynia and therefore at a disadvantage. In Kholm, Hrubeshiv, Brest, Polissya and Zakerzone (south eastern Poland) Ukrainians were at a disadvantage and suffered proportionately more. Galicia was more evenly balanced and both populations suffered in similar numbers. In Kholm and Hrubeshiv (where Polish forces began the first round of killings of Ukrainian civilians in 1941-1942) and Zakerzone, for example, upwards of 10,000 in the former and 4,000-5,000 Ukrainian civilians in the latter were killed by Polish forces. In regions where Ukrainians were in a minority, such as these, the UPA acted as their only protective force.

Although historians of Ukraine and Snyder present different numbers of Poles and Ukrainians who were killed, they roughly reach a similar conclusion that the overall proportion was two Polish to one Ukrainian killed. Ivan Patryliak, whose work on Ukrainian nationalist groups is regarded as the best in Ukraine, calculates that 39,000-40,000 Poles and 17,000-21,000 Ukrainians were killed.

Poland’s victimisation complex

There are five factors that underlay Poland’s victimisation complex. The first is an unwillingness to accept that Poland was an imperialist power and thereby to only view Poland as a victim of attacks by its neighbours or treachery by its citizens (as in the case of Ukrainians in 1939). Polish historiography does not see a country or people to its immediate east but “wild fields” empty of anything resembling a real nation where Poland, defending the edge of Europe, had a civilising mission. The second, as discussed earlier, is an unwillingness – unlike Ukrainian historians and some historians of Poland such as Snyder – to accept that the killings in Volhynia were not a one-off historical event. They were in fact a part of a bitter war that germinated in the late 1930s and ended in 1947 with Akcja Wisla.

The third is that extreme nationalists not only existed on the Ukrainian side. Polish and Russian nationalists have never viewed Ukrainians as a nation and in interwar Poland anti-Ukrainian policies (which included the burning of hundreds of Ukrainian Orthodox Churches in Kholm and Pidlachia in 1938) meant that few Ukrainians mourned the destruction of the Polish state in 1939. In that same year, Ukrainian nationalists fought against Hungary (and its Nazi and Polish allies) in Carpatho-Ukraine after the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. In 1943-1944, Ukrainian and Polish nationalists believed the Nazi’s had lost the war and both wanted to take control of territory before the arrival of the Soviets. This was the logic of AK’s “Operation Tempest” throughout Poland. To Ukrainian nationalists, who always viewed the USSR (not Poles) as their main enemy, their memory of defeat in Lviv (Lwów) in 1918 was something they sought to prevent from happening a second time.

The fourth is the pervasive view that only the UPA were criminals while the AK were not. There is abundant archival evidence that the AK, Peasant Battalion and NSZ (National Armed Forces loyal to the Endecja) committed crimes against Ukrainians. Sometimes this was in alliance with Soviet partisans. In March 1944, AK and peasant battalion units participated in the murder of 1,500 Ukrainians in what became called the “Hrubeshiv Revolution”. Former Volhynian AK partisans demobilised by Soviet forces were re-employed in Polish communist and KBW (Internal Security Corps) units that committed numerous killings of Ukrainians in Zakerzone.

The fifth is the widespread myth that only Ukrainians collaborated with the Nazi’s. In fact, both Poles and Ukrainians served in the Nazi police and both these forces committed crimes. The Nazi’s arrested and murdered 80 per cent of OUN’s leaders in the second half of 1941. OUN and AK launched their anti-Nazi partisan struggles at the same time in early 1942. Ukrainian police defected from the Nazi’s in March 1943, nearly a year earlier than the Polish police. Therefore, Ukrainian and Polish police respectively joined the UPA and AK. In 1943-1944, Polish police and the Nazi’s killed numerous Ukrainian civilians in Volhynia. Polish police working for the Nazi’s and self-defence units armed by the Nazi’s contributed the largest number of volunteers to the AK’s largest unit, the 27th Wołyń Division.

Conclusions

Most countries in Europe have skeletons in their closets, especially connected to their imperialist pasts. Of the Axis powers, Germany alone has pursued a policy of rigorous de-Nazification while ignoring until recently its genocide of the Herero, Nama and San people in Namibia in 1904-1907. England celebrates Oliver Cromwell as the father of parliamentary government while Irish history views him as a butcher of Irish Catholics.

There is evidence that nationalism is becoming a part of the mainstream in Poland and Russia, which I argue is not the case in Ukraine – where civic patriotism is dominant. The genocide myth and Poland’s victimisation complex is a product of two factors. The first is the current rise in nationalism throughout Europe and the US. The second draws on historical writing and deep-seated stereotypes and chauvinistic attitudes towards Ukrainians that existed in interwar and communist Poland. These were hidden from view in the 1980s and 1990s when the Jerzy Giedroyc, editor of Kultura journal and the architect of the policy of mutual forgiveness influenced the Solidarity generation and dominated Polish attitudes towards Ukrainians.

A victimisation complex and search for enemies will remain in place as long as nationalism is part of the country’s mainstream. Unfortunately, this will distract from Poland’s strategic objectives of thwarting Russian aggression and supporting Ukraine’s integration into Europe.

Taras Kuzio is the author of the recently published Putin’s War Against Ukraine: Revolution, Nationalism, and Crime and co-author forthcoming (with Paul D’Anieri) of The Sources of Russia’s Great Power Politics: Ukraine and the Challenge to the European Order.

  • Michael Brytan

    Raphael Lemkin who coined the word genocide was clear that the mass killing of a distinct peoples for the purpose of eradicating them was only one expression of genocide. He also included the forced cultural assimilation of one group into another. Using this broader definition and the historical interwar period of forced Polonization of the Western Ukrainian peoples (closing of Ukrainian language schools, burning of Ukrainian Orthodox Churches, employment discrimination, etc…) it can be argued that in fact it was the Poles who were involved in the genocide of the Ukrainians on a MUCH LARGER SCALE AND LONG BEFORE the 1943 events of Volyn.

    • Pole77

      Poland committed many errors 1919-1939 but Henryk Józewski cooperated with Ukrainians in Volhynia. Another pro-Ukrainian politician Tadeusz Hołówko was murdered allegedly not by Ukrainians. Ukrainian terrorists murdered a number of Ukrainians, eg. Ivan Babij.

      During the war Ukrainian natiuonalists (especially SB) murdered not only ethnic Poles but also members of mixed families and Ukrainians who refused to participate in the genocide.

      • Michael Brytan

        The government of the Republic of Poland committed ongoing genocide of the Ukrainian peoples during the period 1919-1939. This was a direct violation of the Treaty of Versaille. The Polish government in Exhile 1939-1947 continued the policies of genocide of the Ukrainian peoples. The Polish people must stop defending and instead condemn these criminal governments and organizations who were involved in the genocide of the Ukrainian people.

        • Pole77

          “The Polish government in Exhile 1939-1947 continued the policies of genocide of the Ukrainian peoples” – in a parallel universe. In the real world the government in Exile had little influence on anything since 1945. Are you sure you understand the subject?

          The Ukrainian people must stop defending and instead condemn these criminal organizations who were involved in the genocide of the Polish people.

          • Michael Brytan

            Do you understand that you are on the longest river in Egypt ? Denial – that it was the Poles who committed genocide LONG before 1943 towards the Ukrainian peoples.

          • zerwikaptur

            Another Ukrainian propagandist defending genocidal UPA. Not different, if at all, from Russians defending communist crimes. Nothing surprising: Ukrainians and Russians are of the same culture. Poland should isolate herself from both.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = Russian Internet Troll paid to promote divisive post. Ignore this Putin paid employee.

          • zerwikaptur

            Just confimed my opinion. No cultural differences between Ukrainians and Russians. Only different criminals as heroes. Donbas conflict is just a brawl between two criminal gangs, both hostile to Poland. The longer and the bloodier the better for Poland.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = Russian Internet Troll paid by Putin to write divisive propaganda.

          • zerwikaptur

            Your posts are getting funnier and funnier. This is what heard about East Slavs – they have a sense s humour. Unfortunately, it goes together with worship of criminals.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = Russian Internet Troll paid by the Kremlin.

          • zerwikaptur

            So you really reached the last page of the propagandist script? Ask your Russisn brethren for a tip.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = Putin Internet Bot – Beware ! = paid hate propaganda

          • zerwikaptur

            Show some creativity. You are lagging behind.

          • Michael Brytan

            Get your Kremlin sponsored pay check as soon as possible. Russia will be running out of money this year to pay you. Make sure Vladimir Putin pays you on time OR you risk getting nothing. Good luck !

          • zerwikaptur

            Is this all you got as a tip from your Russian brethren? So disappointing.

          • Michael Brytan

            What are they serving for lunch in the St-Petersburg Internet Troll factory cafeteria today ?

          • zerwikaptur

            Ask your brethren there

          • Michael Brytan

            American don’t work there. Only Russian bots such as yourself work there.

          • zerwikaptur

            So you have been there and sern who works there. Very telling.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = Ruskaya Internetova Trollova

          • zerwikaptur

            Ok, I understand that working away from home and pretending to be an American who supports Ukraine might be tough on psyche. However, think about this: Ukrainians and Russians have the same culture. It should not be too difficult.

          • Michael Brytan

            Ukrainians and Russians are not the same:
            (1) Russians = Czardom of Muscovy – a vassal state for Genghis Khan (Mongol Asian Empire)
            (2) Ukraine-Rus = European culture and values

          • zerwikaptur

            Both states worship criminals, just from competing gencidal gangs. Both are anti-Polish. Proven that there is no difference in culture.
            I can see you are trying hard (not smart) in your new assignment. However your propaganda does not work on me.

          • Michael Brytan

            PUTIN pays you well. But make sure you get your pay check on time. Russia’s running out of money.

          • zerwikaptur

            Who cares about Russia or Ukraine? The same cleptocratic culture with intermingled elites doing deals all the time. Let them bleed each other, the longer the better.

          • Michael Brytan

            You care about Russia because that’s where you live and where you get your pay check.

            Zerwikaptur = Russian Internet Troll pretending to be Polish 🙂 🙂

          • zerwikaptur

            You care about Russia as it is your fatherland. You miss it so much that you cannot stop writing about it.

          • Belak Gutierres

            Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians belonged to a Kievan Rus kingdom … that is why they share history that was later divided by the Polish-Lithuanians in the West and by the Mongols in the East

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = Russian Internet Troll

          • zerwikaptur

            Seems that even when you try to work harder, the results are the same. Will you ever try to work smarter?

          • Michael Brytan

            Say to Vlad Putin when you pass him by in the St-Petersburg Russian Internet Troll Factory.

          • zerwikaptur

            I told you to work smarter. Still not understood.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur – Rusky Internat Trolovich

          • zerwikaptur

            Lost hope about you. No worry, you still have entertainment value.

          • Michael Brytan

            How’s the weather in Russia ?

          • zerwikaptur

            Call your parents. They see it outside of their house.

          • Michael Brytan

            My parents live in New York. That’s why they can’t see your parents in St-Petersburg – RUSSIA.

          • zerwikaptur

            So you brought them from Russia to the US with you? Now I understand why you work so hard: you need to feed them.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = Putin internet Troll getting paid for each post he make. Let’s help him.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = the Russian Internet troll trying to make a living

          • zerwikaptur

            I am afraid that “smarter” is an alien word for you. Was it missing in the dictionary you got before the transfer to the US?

          • Michael Brytan

            Good move to upvote your own post 🙂
            Nobody else will 🙂

          • zerwikaptur

            Congratulations. You passed the first hurdle to prove you are capable of working smarter. You have 24 hours to find a logical flaw in your statement above. You will earn 2 points if you do that. Your overall target is 100 points. Start now.

    • Belak Gutierres

      michael brytan how are you going comrade….everyone has their hands stained with blood … Ukrainian Russian Poles … there are no saints
      just in case I’m troll of the kremlin😂😂😂

  • AnnaD

    Terrible misguiding article! Brutally murdered at least 40,000 Polish civilians in Volhynia and 10,000 in Galicia- how is that not a genocide? Villages were torched. Roman Catholic priests were axed or crucified. Churches were burned with all their parishioners. Isolated farms were attacked by gangs carrying pitchforks and kitchen knives. Throats were cut. Pregnant women were bayoneted. Children were cut in two. Shame on you for defending people who committed this!

    • Pole77

      The number of Polish victims was between 70,000 and 100,000 . During one day 99 villages were destroyed. An Ukrainina writer compares killing of Polish people to slaughtering pigs and obtains a literary prize in Poland.

      Henryk Józewski was relatively liberal, but Michael Brytan doesn’t care.

  • Pole77

    The best way to count the victims of Ukrainian nationalists is to exhume them. Ukraine doesn’t exhume and it doesn’t allow the Poles to do it. The victims deserve to have their graves.

  • Sue

    My father was a Polish para, fighting in the Polish army, on the Allied Side. (I have to add “on the Allied Side” these days, as it seems we are being moved into the Axis camp in the Revised version of WW2.) And this was a terrible terrible time for all concerned. Both peoples suffered so much under the regimes of Stalin and Hitler.

    I am really sorry there has been such hatred between Poles and Ukrainians and would not want to say anything to make it worse.

    Our Creator, the God of Abraham, gave us the perfect definition of love, in which he tells us that love “does not keep account of the injury”.

    The world is strongly encouraging us to go the other way and to keep account of every injury. And we all have plenty to keep account of!

    But if we would only listen to our Creator, we would learn how to get along as the one family we truly are.

    A rescue is on the way. What else are we asking for when we say the Lord’s prayer and ask for God’s Kingdom to come? And how much we need it.

  • zerwikaptur

    Mr Kuzio is doing a great job in creating strawmen with whom he fights so heroically.
    There is no need for an order for genocide to happen.
    Most of the names of the genocide victims conducted by OUN/UPA in Volhynia & Eastern Little Poland is simply uknown as Ukrainian nationalists obliterated the whole villages.
    By Mr Kuzio’s logic as we do not know all the names of Holocaust then it did not happen.
    The same with Holodomor.

    The more Ukraine honors the fascist genocidal military gang also known as UPA, the more it proves that it belongs in its spiritual core to Russkiy Mir.

    • Michael Brytan

      Zerwikaptur = soon to become my favorite Russian Internet Troll

      • zerwikaptur

        So bitter today you are. Did you speak Russian instead of Ukrainian and almost blew your cover? No worry, claim it was surzhyk.

        • Michael Brytan

          Zerwikaptur = my favorite Russian Internet Troll pretending to be Polish. How’s the borsch at the St-Petersburg Internet Troll cafeteria ? 🙂

          • zerwikaptur

            You failed to earn two points. Your current score is zero. Your target is one hundred – average human intelligence.

          • Michael Brytan

            zerwikaptur = ruskky internety trolsky

          • zerwikaptur

            You are under stress from living as undercover hence you slowly revert to your native language.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = Russianska Internetskaya Trollska

          • zerwikaptur

            You are predictably and surley getting closer and closer to cyrillic, your native writing.

          • Michael Brytan

            Zerwikaptur = Ruskaya Internetskaya Trolska

  • Belak Gutierres

    all right at the beginning … about Russian Polish nationalism … but that in Ukraine there is no nationalism ???? wich country do you live??

  • Michael Kot

    The author is terrible manipulator and liar. Many Ukrainians strongly support this part of Polish anti-defamation law but they afraid to say so openly.

  • Abstract Justice

    There is a list of tortures that UPA “soldiers” applied on Poles. It’s a real horror. You can find for example “child wreath” – children were hamerred to the tree through the head. No comments.

  • https://archive.org/details/polishatrocities00revy
    Polish atrocities in Ukraine,A collection of reports, etc., on the conditions in eastern Galicia under Polish rule
    by Revyuk, Emil; United Ukrainian Organizations of the United States

    Publication date 1931
    Publisher New York City : [Svoboda Press]

  • Danuta Marchwinski

    It was an ethnic cleansing done by Ukrainians on Polish people. Even Nazi could not torture people so badly!
    Have you ever seen any photos? I have seen many! They tortured their enemies before killing them.

  • Danuta Marchwinski

    Watch the video and you can see photos by the end of the video.

    https://youtu.be/5OJyKyinpks

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